PAThs.docs
Tracking Papyrus and Parchment Paths.
An Archaeological Atlas of Coptic Literature.

Manual for the correct use and reading of the codicological description of the codicological units

A detailed technical description of database schema is published at schema/manuscripts.

Ref.: paths.manuscripts


Manuscript identifiers

CLM

  • Coptic Literary Manusctipt (CLM)identifier of the reconstructed codicological unit.
  • DB id: id

CMCL

  • CMCL siglum of the reconstructed codicological unit, where available (www.cmcl.it).
  • DB id: cmclid

TM

LDAB

LCBM

  • List of Coptic Biblical Manuscripts identifier, where available (Göttingen, Digital Edition of the Sahidic Coptic Old Testament - coptot.manuscriptroom.com/manuscript-catalog / Berlin, Novum Testamentum Graecum - Editio Critica Maior).
  • DB id: lcbm

DBMNT

  • List of Database of Medieval Nubian Texts identifier, where available (www.dbmnt.uw.edu.pl).
  • DB id: dbmnt

ALIAS

  • Name par excellence used to identify a manuscript (i.e. Codex Tchacos).
  • DB id: alias

PRESERVED IN A SINGLE FRAGMENT

  • True or 1 if the manuscript is preserved in only one single fragment
  • DB id: issinglefrag

ONLY BOOKBINDING PRESERVED

  • True or 1 if only the bookbinding is preserved
  • DB id: isbookbinding

MANUSCRIPT REUSED IN BOOKBINDING

  • True or 1 if the manuscript has been reused in a bookbinding
  • DB id: reusedinbinding

STRATIGRAPHY

  • Brief description of the stratigraphy of the codicological unit, following the method and terminology of P. Andrist, P. Canart, M. Maniaci, La syntaxe du codex. Essai de codicologie structurale, Turnhout 2013 [ISBN: 9782503543932]. Particular attention is given to ‘Production Units’ (UniProd) and ‘Circulation Units’ (UniCirc).
  • DB id: stratigraphy

MODERN HISTORY

  • Brief description of the modern history of the original (i.e. virtually reconstructed) codicological unit and/or of the fragments in which it is composed. History of modern storage places is recorded, as well as modifications of the codicological units (e.g. unification or dismemberment). See also Codex stratigraphy.
  • DB id: modernhistory

CONTENTS

  • Detailed description of the sequence of the works contained in a multiple-text manuscript (Clavis Coptica = CC) or description of the content of a work that, for different reasons, at the moment cannot be associated to a CC.
  • DB id: contents

Shelfmarks

For each manuscript multiple instances of the following group of fields can be filed, each one describing a single modern fragment.

These fields are not part of the manuscripts table but of the m_shelfmarks table.

COLLECTION

  • Normalised full form of the collection name (country, city, institution, and collection of the fragment)
  • DB id: collection
  • Warning: this field is a foreign key referring collections.id field.

SHELFMARK

  • Identifier of the fragment within the collection
  • DB id: shelfmark

F./FF. OR P./PP.

  • For dismembered manuscripts (except the White Monastery manuscripts), page or leaf range, within the modern bibliological unit. For dismembered manuscripts from the White Monastery, page or leaf range, within the codicological unit (about the concepts of bibliological and codicological units, see T. Orlandi, Coptic Texts Relating to the Virgin Mary. An Overview, Rome 2008, 8-9). For fully preserved manuscripts (e.g.: Phantoou manuscripts), modern foliation as stated in catalogues and/or editions. When a % sign occurs, it refers to portion of a single page/leaf preserved in more than one fragment.
  • DB id: pp

Dialects

DIALECTS/LANGUAGES

  • Indication of the dialect(s) or language(s) used in the manuscript, according to the sigla of the Kasser-Funk system (see R. Kasser, A Standard System of Sigla for Referring to the Dialects of Coptic, in Journal of Coptic Studies 1 [1990], 141-151).
  • DB id: dialect

NOTES ON DIALECTS/LANGUAGES

  • Special characteristics of the dialect. Bibliographical reference only for minor dialects.
  • DB id: dialectnotes

Relevant places

For each manuscript, multiple instances of the following group of fields can be filed, each one describing a single relation to Place.

These fields are not part of the manuscripts table but of the m_quires table.

TYPE

  • Type of connection between a manuscript and a place: production, storage or discovery
  • DB id: type

PLACE

  • Connected place
  • DB id: place

SOURCE OF INFORMATION

  • The source of information used to make the connection: contents, colophon, title, archaeology, decoration, palaeography, dialect, modern reports
  • DB id: sourceinfo

NOTES ON SOURCE

  • Noteworthy matters regarding the source used to make the connection between a manuscript and a place
  • DB id: sourcenotes

Dating

SOURCE FOR DATING

  • Used to further qualify the type of dating. Available sources are: colophon, palaeography, prosopography, related manuscripts, archaeological data and contents in case a manuscript is part of a (well) datable group of manuscripts.
  • DB id: datingsource

FROM

  • Lower chronological limit (year) of the codicological unit, to be expressed in years. Negative values are used for BCE dating
  • DB id: chronofrom

TO

  • Upper chronological limit (year) of the codicological unit, to be expressed in years. Negative values are used for BCE dating. In the case of an exact date (year), this field should be filled with the same value of the From (chronofrom) date. When no elements of dating are available, the label is blank.
  • DB id: chronoto

DATING CRITERIA

  • Criteria and information source for dating. If the manuscript/fragment (= codicological unit) is not datable, the field is blank.
  • DB id: datingcriteria

Book form

BOOK FORM

  • Codex, horizontal roll (roll written horizontally in a sequence of more or less narrow columns), vertical roll (roll in which the writing runs in one column top-down and parallel to the short side), ostrakon, polyptych (codex made from wooden tablets), tablet and single leaf.
  • DB id: bookform

WRITING SUPPORT

  • Material used for the manuscripts (papyrus, parchment, paper, wood, terracotta, stone, and leather).
  • DB id: writingsupport

General description

NUMBER OF ANCIENT EXTANT LEAVES

  • Total number of ancient leaves, including ancient fly and guard leaves.
  • DB id: leaftotextant

NUMBER OF FRAGMENTS

  • Total number of extant fragments (i.e. fragmentary leaves) belonging to a codicological unit.
  • DB id: fragtot

FRAGMENTS DIMENSIONS

  • Dimensions of the extant fragments, if any, and when relevant.
  • DB id: fragdim

ESTIMATED NUMBER OF ANCIENT LEAVES

  • Estimated number of ancient leaves.
  • DB id: leaftotestimated

NUMBER OF EXTANT QUIRES

  • Total number of the extant quires.
  • DB id: quiresextant

NOTES

  • Verbose listing of ancient fly, guard, and written leaves.
  • DB id: gennotes

Page description

COLUMNS

  • Number of columns per page.
  • DB id: columns

NOTES ON COLUMNS

  • Special/specific characteristics of columns.
  • DB id: colnotes

LINES PER COLUMN

  • Number of lines per column. E.g.: “25+” = “more than 25 lines”; “25-“ = “less than 25 lines”; “25-30” = “25 to 30 lines”.
  • DB id: linespercolumn

CHARACTERS PER LINE

  • Number of characters per line. E.g.: “25+” = “more than 25 characters”; “25-“ = “less than 25 characters”; “25-30” = “25 to 30 characters”.
  • DB id: charsperline

TEXT ALIGNMENT

  • Typology of text alignment inside columns (left, right, justified).
  • DB id: alignment

NOTES ON ALIGNMENT

  • Notes on the typology of alignment.
  • DB id: alignmentnotes

Dimensions (mm) and proportions

LEAF WIDTH

  • Total width (in mm) of the leaf or the tablet.
  • DB id: leafw

LEAF HEIGHT

  • Total height (in mm) of the leaf or the tablet.
  • DB id: leafh

WRITING FRAME WIDTH

  • Total width (in mm) of the writing frame.
  • DB id: framew

WRITING FRAME HEIGHT

  • Total height (in mm) of the writing frame.
  • DB id: frameh

INTERCOLUMNIUM

  • Dimensions (in mm) of the intercolumnium if present.
  • DB id: intercolumnium

UPPER MARGIN

  • Dimensions (in mm) of the upper margin.
  • DB id: marginup

LOWER MARGIN

  • Dimensions (in mm) of the lower margin.
  • DB id: marginlow

OUTER MARGIN

  • Dimensions (in mm) of the margin on the opposite side of the gutter.
  • DB id: marginout

INNER MARGIN

  • Dimensions (in mm) of the margin along the gutter.
  • DB id: marginin

LEFT MARGIN

  • Term to be used for rolls or small fragments of codices where no binding traces are visible or inferable.
  • DB id: marginleft

RIGHT MARGIN

  • Term to be used for rolls or small fragments of codices where no binding traces are visible or inferable.
  • DB id: marginright

HEIGHT OF TEN LINES OF TEXT

  • Height of ten lines of text (in mm) together with their nine interlinear spaces.
  • DB id: heighttenlines

PROPORTION HEIGHT/WIDTH

  • It quantifies the format of a codex. If the proportion is around 1, the codex is defined as square (quadratus); if the proportion is around 2, the codex is defined as rectangular (oblongus).
  • DB id: prophw

PROPORTION WRITTEN/TOTAL PAGE SPACE

  • It shows how the writer decided to cover the writing support with scripture. Total page space includes the margins and the intercolumnia. The proportion is always between 0 and 1; the smaller it is, the smaller the surface of the page written upon. The bigger it is (around 1), a larger surface of the page is covered with writing and therefore margins and intercolumnia (if present) are narrower.
  • DB id: propwt

NOTES ON DIMENSIONS AND PROPORTIONS

  • Noteworthy matters regarding the proportion between written/unwritten areas.
  • DB id: dimnotes

Reconstructed quire layout

For each manuscript, multiple instances of the following group of fields can be filed, each one describing a single quire.

These fields are not part of the manuscripts table but of the m_quires table.

QUIRE NO.

  • Modern number assigned to the quire
  • DB id: quireno

QUIRE LAYOUT

  • Schematic representation of the quire layout obtained by means of an ad hoc-elaborated tool (quireMatrix by J. Bogdani, DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1453362, working demo: https://paths-erc.github.io/quireMatrix/): a dependency-less software to visualise in the browser the layout of quires, using a highly intuitive notation system. The software is written in vanilla javascript and can be run in every browser. The code is available for download at PAThs’ official GitHub repository: https://github.com/paths-erc/quireMatrix and is released with MIT License.
  • DB id: quirelayout

PAPIRUS QUIRE TYPOLOGY

  • Papyrus quire typology, according to E.G. Turner, The Typology of the Early Codex, Philadelphia 1977. The fibre direction of the first page is noted (→ for horizontal fibres, and ↓ for vertical fibres) and followed by the pattern of composition of the quire, i.e. ‘like facing like’ when a double page shows the same fibre direction or ‘alternance’ when the fibre direction alternates in a double page. If the quire is of mixed type, its composition is accurately described in ‘Quire notes’ (see below).
  • DB id: quirepaptype

PARCHMENT QUIRE TYPOLOGY

  • Parchment quire typology, according to E.G. Turner, The Typology of the Early Codex, Philadelphia 1977. The parchment side of the first page is noted (F for flesh side, and H for hair side) and followed by the pattern of composition of the quire, i.e. ‘like facing like’ when a double page shows the same parchment side (and respects the Gregory rule) or ‘alternance’ when the parchment side alternates in a double page. If the quire is of mixed type, its composition is accurately described in Quire notes.
  • DB id: quirepartype

QUIRE NOTES

  • Ancient quire signature. Special characteristics of the structure and composition of the quire, e.g. →↓|→↓|↓→|→↓||↓→|→↓|↓→|↓→ or F H|H F|F H|F H||H F|H F|F H|H F, where | shows the passage from one leaf to the next; || shows the centre of the quire. For papyrus codices, the scheme →-↓ or ↓-→ indicates a change of fibre direction in the page, i.e. in case of a kollēsis: e.g. →-↓ ↓-→|↓-→ →-↓.
  • DB id: quirenotes

NOTES ON QUIRES

  • Noteworthy matters regarding the quires.
  • DB id: quirenotes

Quire signature

PRESENCE OF QUIRE SIGNATURE

  • Noted if present.
  • DB id: quiresig

QUIRE SIGNATURE TYPE

  • Regular/irregular. A regular signature respects the logical order of the quires; an irregular signature shows errors or incompleteness in signing the quires. We consider as irregular repeated series of regular quire signatures (e.g.: quires 1-4 signed ⲁ-ⲇ followed by quires 5-8 signed again ⲁ-ⲇ).
  • DB id: quiretype

QUIRE SIGNATURE POSITION

  • Top-left / -right / -central / -inner / -outer. Position of the quire signature on the page. It is usually written in the upper margin. The position may vary: near the inner margin, in the centre or near the outer margin. For the leaves where recto and verso cannot be identified, “left” or “right” is used.
  • DB id: quireposition

NOTES ON QUIRE SIGNATURE

  • Special characteristics or exceptions in numbering, type, position, etc. of the quire signature.
  • DB id: quirenrnotes

Pagination

PAGINATION

  • Noted if present.
  • DB id: pagination

PAGINATION TYPE

  • Regular/irregular. A regular numbering respects the logical order of the pages. An irregular numbering shows errors or incompleteness in numbering the pages. We consider as irregular repeated series of regular paginations (e.g.: pages 1-20 signed ⲁ-ⲕ followed by pages 21-40 signed again ⲁ-ⲕ).
  • DB id: pagtype

PAGINATION POSITION

  • Top-left / -right / -central / -inner / -outer. Position of the page numbers on the page. It is usually written in the upper margin. The position may vary: near the inner margin, in the centre or near the outer margin. For the leaves where recto and verso cannot be identified, “left” or “right” is used.
  • DB id: pagposition

NOTES ON PAGINATION

  • Special characteristics or exceptions in numbering, type, position, etc. of the page numbers.
  • DB id: pagnote

Foliation (ancient and modern)

PRESENCE OF FOLIATION

  • Noted if present. Usually, foliation is modern and written in pencil. Exceptions are accurately described.
  • DB id: foliation

FOLIATION TYPE

  • Regular/irregular. A regular numbering respects the logical order of the leaves. An irregular numbering shows errors or incompleteness in numbering the leaves.
  • DB id: foltype

FOLIATION POSITION

  • Top-left / -right / -central / -inner / -outer. Position of folio numbers on the page. It is usually written in the upper margin. The position may vary: near the inner margin, in the centre or near the outer margin. For the leaves where no binding traces are visible or inferable “left” or “right” is used.
  • DB id: folposition

NOTES ON FOLIATION

  • Special characteristics or exceptions in numbering, type, position, etc. of the folio numbers.
  • DB id: folnotes

NUMBER OF HANDS

  • Number of different scribe hands identified. For each of them a hand description protocol must be filled out.
  • DB id: handstot

Hand(s)

For each manuscript, multiple instances of the following group of fields can be filed, each one describing a single hand.

These fields are not part of the manuscripts table but of the m_hands table.


HAND NUMBER

  • Progressive unique number of identified hands
  • DB id: handno

WRITING MODULAR TYPOLOGY

  • In unimodular writing, the letters all fit in the same shape, usually a square. In bimodular writing, there is an opposition between wide letters and narrower ones (usually ⲉ, ⲑ, ⲟ, ⲥ).
  • DB id: modulartypology

AXIS

  • Axis of the writing (upright/right-sloping).
  • DB id: writingaxis

THICK-AND-THIN STYLE

  • Noted if present.
  • DB id: thickandthin

IDENTIFICATION

  • The (nick)name of the scribe, if known
  • DB id: identification

NOTES ON WRITING

  • Noteworthy elements related to the writing and the glyphs. In this section, the writing styles (Biblical majuscule, Alexandrian majuscule, Sloping majuscule, and mixed type) are also mentioned.
  • DB id: writingnotes

Diacritical signs

In the absence of a detailed and comprehensive study, we do not take into account the supralinear strokes.

LECTIONAL SIGNS

  • Signs used to help the correct reading of the text: trema, apostrophe, etc.
  • DB id: lectionalsigns

PUNCTUATION AND STRUCTURAL/LOGICAL SIGNS

  • Signs used to help the reader to identify the structure of the text. These signs may be graphic (paragraphos, obelos, etc.) or layout characteristics (eisthesis, ekthesis, etc.).
  • DB id: structuralsigns

NOTES ON SIGNS

  • Special characteristics about the above-described signs.
  • DB id: signsnotes

ABBREVIATIONS

  • Nomina sacra or abbreviations marked by superlinear strokes.
  • DB id: abbreviations

NOTES ON ABBREVIATIONS

  • Characteristics of the abbreviations and the abbreviation system.
  • DB id: abbrnotes

Ruling and pricking

RULING

  • Noted if present.
  • DB id: ruling

RULING TYPE

  • Description of ruling types, following Leroy’s method (J. Leroy, Les types de réglures des manuscrits grecs, Paris 1976; J.H. Sautel, Répertoire des réglures dans les manuscrits grecs sur parchemin, Turnhout 1995).
  • DB id: rulingtype

RULING TOOL

  • Description of the ruling tools.
  • DB id: rulingtool

PRICKING

  • Noted if present.
  • DB id: pricking

NOTES ON RULING

  • Noteworthy matters related to ruling.
  • DB id: rulingnotes

LEAF TABS

  • Little leather or parchment tabs fixed to the outer margin of a leaf and intended as a bookmark. Noted if present.
  • DB id: leaftabs

NOTES ON LEAF TABS

  • Noteworthy matters related to the leaf tabs.
  • DB id: leaftabsnotes

MANUFACTURE OF THE ROLLS

PRESENCE OF KOLLĒSEIS

  • Noted if present.
  • DB id: kolleseis

KOLLĒSEIS DESCRIPTION

  • Number, direction (horizontal of vertical).
  • DB id: kolleseseisdescr

NOTES

  • Direction (horizontal or vertical) and position (ascending or descending) of the kollēseis on the pages or on the rolls (we use ‘K+number’ to identify the kollēseis: K1, K2, etc.), identification and dimensions of the reconstructed rolls and kollēmata (‘k+number’ is used to identify the kollēmata, e.g. k1, k2, etc.).
  • DB id: tracesnotes

NUMBER OF KOLLĒMATA

  • Noted if the number can be estimated.
  • DB id: kollno

KOLLĒMATA DIMENSIONS

  • Noted if possible to measure (‘k+number’ is used to identify the kollēmata: k1, k2, etc.)
  • DB id: kolldim

BINDINGS

PRESENCE OF BINDINGS

  • Noted if present.
  • DB id: bindings

BOARD MATERIAL

  • Material of the binding boards
  • DB id: boardmat

PRESENCE OF SEWINGS

  • Noted if present.
  • DB id: sewings

TYPE OF SEWING

  • Description of the sewing type.
  • DB id: sewingtype

COVERS

  • If present, indication of the preserved cover(s) (upper and/or lower).
  • DB id: covers

NOTES ON COVERS

  • Verbose description of the covers.
  • DB id: coversnotes

NO. OF HOLES

  • Number of the extant binding holes (also applicable to tablets).
  • DB id: holesno

ARRANGEMENT OF HOLES

  • Position of the holes.
  • DB id: holesarrangement

NOTES ON HOLES

  • Specific/special characteristics of the holes
  • DB id: holesnotes

Inks and pigments

Coloured

COLOURS

  • List of the pigments used in the codicological unit
  • DB id: pgmcol

PIGMENT LOCATION

  • Location of the pigments within the codicological unit (e.g. text, title, decoration)
  • DB id: pgmlocation

NOTES ON PIGMENTS

  • Noteworthy matters related to the pigments
  • DB id: pgmnotes

Black

BLACK INK TYPES

  • List of black ink types
  • DB id: blktype

BLACK INK LOCATION

  • Location of the black ink within the codicological unit (e.g. text, title, decoration)
  • DB id: blklocation

NOTES ON BLACK INKS

  • Noteworthy matters related to the black ink
  • DB id: blknotes

Additional information

MARGINAL NOTES

  • Noted if present and transcription or brief description.
  • DB id: marginalnotes

GREEK MINUSCULE SCRIPT

  • Noted if present.
  • DB id: greekminuscule

NOTES ON GREEK MINUSCULE SCRIPT

  • Notes on Greek minuscule script.
  • DB id: greekminusculenotes

PALIMPSEST

  • It records whether the manuscript is palimpsest or not.
  • DB id: palimpsest

NOTES ON PALIMPSEST

  • Description of the palimpsest.
  • DB id: palipsestnotes

ANCIENT RESTORATION

  • Notes on ancient restoration, if any.
  • DB id: restancient

MODERN RESTORATIONS

  • Notes on modern restoration, if any.
  • DB id: restmodern

DECORATION TYPES

  • List of the decorative type(s).
  • DB id: decortype

DECORATION SUBJECTS

  • List of the decorative subject(s).
  • DB id: decorsubj

DECORATION DESCRIPTION

  • Description of the decorative elements.
  • DB id: decorationdescr

ENLARGED INITIALS

  • Noted if present.
  • DB id: enlargedinitials

SOURCE OF INFORMATION ABOUT THIS RECORD

  • Autoptic analysis - Photographic reproductions - Bibliography - Archaeometric analysis - Personal communication (from…)
  • DB id: sourceinfo

EDITORS

  • Initials of the person(s) responsible for the record.
  • DB id: editors

STATUS

  • If the record has been fully compiled the status is set to complete; if it is under study the status is set to in-progress. If the status is blank it means that the provided information are incomplete, not reliable and liable to change in the future.
  • DB id: status

LAST MODIFIED

  • Date of last edit
  • DB id: lastmodified

BIBLIOGRAPHY

For each manuscript multiple instances of the following group of fields can be filed, each one describing a bibliographic reference.

These fields are not part of the manuscripts table but of the m_biblio table.

SHORT REFERENCE

  • Short reference of the bibliographic item as stored in biblio table
  • DB id: paths__m_biblio.short

SPECIFIC DETAILS

  • Pages of the publication if not precised in the reference
  • DB id: paths__m_biblio.details

DETAILS ABOUT IMAGES

  • Pages or figures containing reproductions of (part[s] of) the manuscript
  • DB id: paths__m_biblio.images